基礎 漢字 大學問 The etymology and usage of 打

基礎 漢字 大學問 The etymology and usage of 打

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的漢字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。

「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

The basic meaning of 打

躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:

打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER
  • 打人 to hit someone
  • 打下 to shoot down
  • 打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
  • 打鳥 to shoot a bird
  • 打手 a hired thug
  • 打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
  • 打開 to open
  • 打天下 to seize power
  • 打草 to make a draft
  • 打家 (劫舍) to rob
萌芽級 BUDDING READER
  • 打中 to hit a target
  • 打風 To experience a typhoon
  • 打氣 to cheer
  • 打魚 to fish
  • 打比方 to give an analogy
  • 打火 to light a fire
  • (打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
  • 打住 to stop, to halt
  • 打點 to get ready, to put things in order
  • 打坐 to meditate
  • 打聽 to ask around, to enquire
  • 打耳光 to slap
  • 打不過 To be unable to beat
  • 打從 ever since
躍進級 BEGINNING READER
  • 打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
  • 打更 to sound the night watch
  • 打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
  • 打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
  • 打洞 to punch a hole
  • 打動 to move emotionally
  • 打嘴巴 to slap
信心級 BEGINNING READER
  • 打電話 to make a phone call
  • 打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
  • 打傘 to hold up an umbrella
  • 打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
  • 打字 to type
  • 打字機 a typewriter
  • 打分 to grade or mark
  • 打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
  • 打傷 to injure
實力級 BEGINNING READER
  • 打球 to play ball
  • 打遊戲機 to play video game
  • 打掃 to clean up
  • 打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
  • 打滾 to roll about
  • 打結 to tie a knot
  • 打破 to break, to smash
  • 打圓場 to smooth things over
成語 idioms
  • 打成一片 to integrate
  • 打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
  • 打發時間 to kill time
  • 打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
  • 抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.

一起來看看「打」字怎麼寫
Let's practice

繁體和簡體的寫法一樣的喔

It’s written the same way in traditional or simplified Chinese.

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Sagebooks Hongkong promotes independent reading and life-long learning by nurturing the child’s confidence, autonomy and self-teaching abilities. Since 2006. Find out more About Us.

© 2020 Sagebooks Hongkong. All rights reserved.

Sagebooks Hongkong promotes independent reading and life-long learning by nurturing the child’s confidence, autonomy and self-teaching abilities. Since 2006. Find out more About Us.

© 2020 Sagebooks Hongkong. All rights reserved.

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